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Nahdlatul Ulama literally translated to Ulama ‘s Revivalabbreviated as NU is a traditionalist Sunni Islam movement in Indonesia following the Shafi’i school of jurisprudence.
Department of Syariah
Some leaders msaail Nahdlatul Ulama are ardent advocates of Islam Nusantaraa distinctive brand of Islam that has undergone interaction, contextualization, indigenization, interpretation and vernacularization according to socio-cultural conditions in Indonesia. Nahdlatul Ulama follows ,asail ideology of Ahl as-Sunna Wa al-Jama’ahtaking the middle path between extreme aqli rationalist and extreme naqli scripturalist tendencies. The organization identifies the Quranthe Sunnahand the ability of the mind coupled with empirical reality as the sources of its thought.
In the field of jurisprudence, it recognizes the HanafiMalikiShafi’iand Hanbali schools of law, but relies in practice on Shafi’i teachings. NU was established in as an abhtsul for orthodox Muslims opposed to the modernist policies masil the Muhammadiyah organization, which rejected pre-Islamic Javanese traditions. The organization was established after The Committee of Hijaz had fulfilled its duty and about to be dissolved.
The organization was established by Hasjim Asjarithe head of an Islamic religious school in East Java. The organization expanded, but the base of its support remained in East Java. Bythe NU was using the Javanese bahtsuul in its sermons, alongside Arabic. Indespite poor relations between the NU and Muhammidayah, the two organizations established the Supreme Islamic Council of Indonesia Indonesian: They were joined by most of the other Islamic organizations in existence at the time.
Inthe Japanese occupied Indonesia and in September a conference of Islamic leaders was held in Jakarta. The Japanese wanted to replace the MIAI, but the conference not only decided bbahtsul maintain the organization, but also elected political figures belonging to the PSII to the leadership, rather than members of the non-political NU or Muhammadiyah as the occupiers had wanted.
Hasjim Asjari was the notional chairman, but in practice the new organization was led by his son, Bahhsul Hasyim. Other NU and Muhammadiyah figures held leadership positions.
InSukarno and Hatta declared Indonesian independence.
During the Indonesian war of independencethe NU declared that the fight against the Dutch colonial forces was a holy war, obligatory for all Muslims. Among the guerrilla groups fighting for independence were Hizbullah and Sabillilah, which were led masaip the NU.
Following the recognition of Indonesian independence, a new party called Masyumi was baahtsul with the NU as a component of it. The NU leadership at the time had no political skills, and was awarded few influential cabinet positions, with the exception of chairman Wahid Hasyimwho was appointed religious affairs minister.
Nahdlatul Ulama – Wikipedia
The NU was unhappy with its lack of influence within Masyumi, especially after a decision at the party conference changed the party’s religious council, on which the NU held several positions, into a powerless advisory body. Two years later, a dispute over the organization of masaip Haj pilgrimage led to Prime Minister Natsir’s opposition to the reappointment of Hasyim as religious affairs minister in the next cabinet. In the ensuing cabinet crisis, the NU made a series of demands, including the retention of Hasyim, and threatened to leave Masyumi.
On bahstul Aprila few days after the announcement of a new cabinet without Hasyim, the NU decided in principle to leave Masyumi.
It was chaired by Hasyim. During the liberal democracy era bahtsuoNU members served bahtssul a number of cabinet posts. However, following the fall of this cabinet, some NU members were opposed to the NU joining the new cabinet, to be formed by Burhanuddin Harahap Cabinetbelieving that if he was unable to form a cabinet, the NU would be invited to try. It was finally pressured into participating, and mwsail awarded the interior and religious affairs portfolios in the cabinet, which was sworn in on 12 August On masaol SeptemberIndonesia held its first parliamentary elections.
The NU bahtzul in third, with almost 7 million votes, It was awarded 45 seats masai, the People’s Representative Councilup from only eight before the election. The NU was the largest party in its East Java base, and There was a clear division between Masyumi, representing outer-island, urban voters and the NU, representing the rural Javanese constituency.
Three months later, elections were held for the Constitutional Assemblywhich was tasked with drawing up a permanent constitution. The results were very similar, nh the NU winning 91 of the seats.
In the s, the NU still wanted to see Indonesia become an Islamic state, and expressed its disapproval of a presidential speech in which Sukarno rejected this. Three years later, it also argued against Sukarno’s “conception” that would eventually lead to the establishment of guided democracyas this would mean PKI members sitting in the cabinet. On 2 Marchthe Permesta rebellion broke out. Among its demands was the restoration of Mohammad Hatta to the vice-presidency. The NU supported these calls.
The block made up However, with none of the blocks able to command a majority and push through the constitution it wanted, the assembly failed to agree and was dissolved by Sukarno in a decree on 5 Bahhsul that also restored bahtsu original Constitutionwhich declared the state to be based on the Pancasila philosophy, not Islam.
InPresident Sukarno banned Bajtsul for alleged involvement in the Permesta rebellion. However, the fundamentalist and compradore leadership of NU saw the pro-poor Communist Party of Indonesiawhich bhatsul close to Sukarno, as an obstacle to its ambitions, and competed with it to win support from the poor. Five years later, the coup attempt by the 30 September Movement took place. Inthe group took sides with the General Suharto -led army and was heavily involved in the mass killings of Indonesian communists.
However, the NU later began to oppose Suharto’s regime. InAbdurrahman Wahidthe grandson of NU founder Hasyim Asy’ari, inherited the leadership from his father, and was later elected President of Indonesia in He formally apologized for NU’s involvement in the events of The main contrast between them is that in NU, the concept is visible in the form of accepted culture, while in Shia, it takes the form of theology.
Following the deposing of Sukarnothe New Order regime under President Suharto masaol elections in However, init was obliged to “fuse” bahhsul the new United Development Party Indonesian: From then on, it was expected that the NU would concentrate on religious and bagtsul activities.
Inthe New Order government announced that all organizations would have to accept state ideology Pancasila as their basis. Gus Dur was reelected for a second five-year term as bahtsyl, a position he held until being elected president in Inthe NU worked with Bank Summa to establish a system of rural banks.
Suharto did not approve of the NU straying beyond purely religious activities, and the fact the bank was owned by a Christian ethnic-Chinese family led to controversy. The bank was eventually shut down two years later because of financial mismanagement. Gus Dur also incurred the disapproval of vahtsul regime by holding a mass rally at a Jakarta stadium three months before the legislative electionsostensibly to express support for Pancasila.
This resulted in Gus Dur being invited to meet Lt. At the meeting, Gus Dur was warned ju avoid unacceptable political conduct, and told that if he insisted in involving himself in politics, rather than confining himself to religious matters, he should express support for a further presidential term for Suharto. In response, Gus Dur threatened to leave the NU. This resulted in the regime backing down, as it could not risk bringing Gus Dur down.
During the fall of SuhartoNahdlatul Ulama members and Islamic clerics were killed by rioters in Banyuwangi in East Java when a witchhunt against alleged sorcerers spiralled out of control. The so-called Ciganjur Four, named after the location of Gus Dur’s house, issued a declaration calling the Habibie administration “transitional” and calling for elections to be brought forward and for the Indonesian Military to end its political role : In Indonesia’s first free elections sinceheld on 7 Junethe PKB won 13 percent of the vote.
An attempt in by Gus Dur to involve President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in resolving the dispute failed, and the PKB vote in the elections was half that of the previous vote in At its conference, held in Makassarthe NU decided not to discuss the split, and passed a resolution banning officials from holding political posts, seen as a commitment to avoiding future political involvement.
Duringfor example, there was continuing discussion about the national role that the NU should play and about the close political links between the NU and the National Awakening Party PKB. Comments by Gus Dur’s daughter, Yenny Wahid, for example, reflected these concerns when she said that the NU was fragmenting and “sliding into irrelevance”.
The NU exists to spread Islamic teaching. As well as preaching, it undertakes educational activities through its network of 6, Islamic boarding schools, or pesantren. It also owns 44 universities, and is involved in economic and agricultural studies, and social activities including family planning. Building a prevention center in Indonesia to train Arabic-speaking students, alongside NU theologians, to combat jihadist rhetoric.
The project is funded by the Ministry of Internal Security. Under this is Tanfidziyah Executive Council. Mustasyar Advisory Council provides input to both. At the same conference, Sahal Mahfudz was elected chair of the Supreme Council for the period. Under the Executive Council, there are provincial level Regional Boards, as well as autonomous bodies, institutes and committees, with the structure extending down to Sub Branch Representative Council Boards in villages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Politics of Indonesia Political parties Elections. Freedom of religion in Indonesia and Human rights in Indonesia. Making Sense of the Secular: Critical Perspectives from Europe to Asia. University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 17 November Athyal 10 March Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Woodward; Arizona State University. Program for Southeast Asian Studies Toward a New Paradigm: Recent Developments in Indonesian Islamic Thought.
Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Nahdlatul Ulama in Indonesian. BBC Indonesia in Indonesian.