معجم اللغة الأمازيغية IRCAM amawal n tutlayt tamazight. Uploaded Taifi M., , Dictionnaire Tamazight-Français (Parlers du Maroc Central), Paris, . Principes d’orthographe berbère en graphie arabe ou latine Mohamed ELMEDLAOUI. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Dictionnaire et traduction en 3 langues (Français – Amazigh: Tifinagh – Arabe) sur , le portail du Maroc et des Marocains dans le .
|Published (Last):||25 October 2008|
|PDF File Size:||18.6 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||16.70 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The Berber languagesalso known as Berber or the Amazigh languages  Berber name: They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berberswho are indigenous to North Africa. Berber is spoken by large populations of MoroccoAlgeria and Libyaby smaller populations of Tunisianorthern Maliwestern and northern Nigernorthern Burkina Faso and Mauritania and in the Siwa Oasis of Egypt. Large Berber-speaking migrant communities, today numbering about 4 million, have been living in Western Europe, spanning over three generations, since the s.
The number of Berber people is much higher than the number of Berber speakers. The bulk of the populations of the Maghreb countries are considered to have Berber ancestors.
Dictionnaire et traduction en 3 langues (Français – Amazigh : Tifinagh – Arabe) sur
They are, in order of number of speakers: The extinct Guanche language spoken on the Canary Islands by the Guanches as well as the languages of the ancient C-Group culture in present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan are believed to have belonged to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family.
The Berber languages and dialects have had a written tradition, on and off, for about 2, years, although the tradition has been frequently disrupted by cultural shifts and invasions. They were first written in the Libyco-Berber abjadwhich is still used today by the Tuareg in the form of Tifinagh. The oldest dated inscription is from 3rd century BCE. Later, between about CE and CE, they were written in the Arabic scriptand since the 20th century they have been written in the Berber Latin alphabetespecially among the Kabyle and Riffian communities of Morocco and Algeria.
The Berber Latin alphabet was also used by most European and Berber linguists during the 19th and 20th centuries. A modernised form of the Tifinagh alphabet, called Neo-Tifinaghwas adopted in Morocco in for writing Berber, but many Moroccan Berber publications still use the Berber Latin alphabet.
Algerians mostly use the Berber Latin alphabet in Berber-language education at public schools, while Tifinagh is mostly used for artistic symbolism. Mali and Niger recognise a Tuareg Berber Latin alphabet customised to the Tuareg phonological system.
However, traditional Tifinagh is still used in those countries. In other Berber-speaking areas, this name was lost. InBerber became a constitutional national language of Algeria, and in Berber became a constitutionally official language of Morocco.
InBerber became a constitutionally official language of Algeria alongside Arabic. The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today. It was borrowed from Latin barbari. Tamazight means “free man”, “noble man”, or “defender”.
The feminine Tamazight traditionally referred specifically to the Riffian and Central Atlas Tamazight languages. European languages distinguish between the words “Berber” and ” barbarian “, while Arabic has the same word al-Barbari for both meanings.
Some other Berber writers, especially in Morocco, prefer to refer to Berber with Amazigh when writing about it in French or English. Traditionally, the term Tamazight in various forms: ThamazighthTamasheqTamajaqTamahaq was used by many Berber groups to refer to the language they spoke, including the Middle Atlasthe Riffiansthe Sened in Tunisia and the Tuareg. However, other terms were used by other groups; for instance, some Berber populations of Algeria called their language Taznatit Zenati or Shelhawhile the Kabyles called theirs Taqbaylitand the inhabitants of the Siwa Oasis called their language Siwi.
In Tunisia, the local Amazigh language is usually referred to as Shelhaa term which has been observed in Morocco as well. One group, the Linguasphere Observatoryhas attempted to introduce the neologism “Tamazic languages” to refer to the Berber languages. Berber is a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
In contrast, the split of the group from the other Afroasiatic sub-phyla is much earlier, and is therefore sometimes associated with the local Mesolithic Capsian culture. According to Peter Behrens and Marianne Bechaus-Gerstlinguistic evidence suggests that the peoples of the C-Group culture in present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan spoke Berber languages.
This in turn suggests that the C-Group atabe — which, along with the Kerma cultureinhabited the Nile valley immediately before the arrival of the first Nubian speakers — spoke Afro-Asiatic languages. Roger Blench  suggests that Proto-Berber speakers had spread from the Nile River valley to North Africa 4, years ago due to the spread of pastoralism, and experienced intense language leveling about 2, years ago as the Roman Empire was expanding in North Africa.
Hence, although Berber had split off from Afroasiatic several thousand years ago, Proto-Berber itself can only be reconstructed to a period as late as A.
Blench notes that Berber is considerably different from other Afroasiatic branches, but modern-day Berber languages display low internal diversity. The presence of Punic borrowings in Proto-Berber points to the diversification of modern Berber language varieties subsequent to the fall of Carthage in B. During this time period, Roman innovations including the ox-plough, camel, and orchard management were tamazigut by Berber communities along the limesdidtionnaire borders of the Roman Empire.
This resulted in a new trading culture involving the use of a lingua franca which became Proto-Berber. Various orthographies have been used to transcribe the Berber languages. In antiquity, the Libyco-Berber script Tifinagh was utilised to write Berber.
Early uses of the script have been found on rock art and in various sepulchres. Among these are the 1, year old monumental tomb of the Tuareg matriarch Tin Hinanwhere vestiges of a Tifinagh inscription have been found on one of its walls.
Following the spread of Islamsome Berber scholars also utilised the Arabic script. Tifinagh, the Arabic script, and the Berber Latin alphabet.
Dictionnzire independence, all the Maghreb countries to varying degrees pursued a policy of Dictionnareaimed partly at displacing French from its colonial position as the dominant language of education and literacy. This state of affairs has been contested by Berbers in Morocco and Algeria—especially Kabylie —and was addressed in both countries by affording the language official status and introducing it in some schools.
Dictionnaire chaouia-arabe-kabyle & français
The constitution of Morocco makes “Amazigh” an official language alongside Arabic. Morocco dixtionnaire a country with several competing linguistically different languages, including French, Modern Standard ArabicMoroccan Arabic and Amazigh.
As the higher status of Modern Standard Arabic grew, so did the relation between the male population and the language, as well as the female population and the lower status language Amazigh.
Women became the main carriers of the Amazigh language as the lower-status language in the country. Algeria recognized Berber as a ” national language tamaxight in though not as an official one. However, on 7 February the Algerian parliament recognised Berber languages as having official status along with Arabic.
Although regional councils in Libya’s Nafusa Mountains affiliated with the National Transitional Council reportedly use the Berber language of Nafusi and have called for it to be granted co-official status dictoinnaire Arabic in a prospective new constitution,   it does not have official status in Libya as in Morocco and Algeria. As areas of Libya south and west of Tripoli such as the Nafusa Mountains were taken from the control of Gaddafi government forces in early summerBerber workshops and exhibitions sprang up to share and spread the Tamazight culture and language.
In Mali and Niger, there are a few schools that teach partially in Tuareg languages. The exact population of Berber speakers is hard to ascertain, since most North African countries do not record language data in their censuses. Ethnologue provides a useful academic starting point; however, taamazight bibliographic references are very divtionnaire, and it hamazight its own accuracy at only B-C for the area. Early colonial censuses may provide better documented figures for some countries; however, these are also very much out of date.
A survey included in the official Moroccan census of and published by several Moroccan newspapers gave the following figures: Adding up the population according to the official census of of the Berber-speaking regions as shown on a map from the CIA results in at least 10 million speakers, not counting the numerous Berber population which lives outside these regions in the bigger cities.
Moroccan linguist Mohamed Chafik claims that 80 percent of Moroccans are Berbers. It is not clear, however, whether he means “speakers of Berber languages” or “people of Berber descent”.
The division of Moroccan Berber languages into three groups, as used by Ethnologue, is common in linguistic publications, but is significantly complicated by the presence of local differences: Shilha is subdivided into Shilha of the Draa River valley, Tasusit the language of the Souss and several other mountain languages.
Moreover, linguistic boundaries are blurred, such that certain languages cannot accurately be described as either Central Morocco Tamazight spoken in the central and eastern Atlas area or Shilha.
Other Berber languages spoken in Algeria include: Didtionnaire, the total number of speakers of Berber languages in the Maghreb proper appears to lie anywhere between 16 and 25 million, depending on which estimate zrabe accepted; if we take Basset’s estimate, it could be dictipnnaire high as 30 million.
The vast majority are concentrated in Morocco and Algeria. The Tuareg of the Sahel adds another million or so dictionniare the total. Nouns in the Berber languages vary in gender masculine versus femininenumber singular versus plural and state free state versus construct state.
While the masculine is unmarked, the feminine also used to form diminutives and singulativeslike an ear of wheat is marked with the circumfix t Feminine plural takes a prefix t Berber languages have two types of number: Plural has three forms according to the type of nouns. The first, “regular” type is known as the “external plural”; it consists dictoinnaire changing the initial vowel of the noun, and arage a suffix -n:.
The second form of the plural is known as the “broken plural”. It involves only a change in the vowels of the word:. The third type of plural is a mixed form: Berber languages also have two types of dictiohnaire or cases of the nounorganized ergatively: The former is often called free statethe latter construct state. The construct state of the noun derives from the free state through one of the following rules: The first involves a vowel alternation, whereby the vowel a becomes u:.
Berber pronouns show gender distinction in the second- and third-persons, but in verbal agreement markers, the distinction is lost in the second-person. A listing of the other Berber languages is complicated by their closeness; there is little distinction between language and dialect.
The primary difficulty of subclassification, however, lies in the eastern Berber languages, dictionnaide there is little agreement.
Otherwise there is consensus on the outlines of the family:. The various classifications differ primarily in what they consider to be Eastern Berber, and in how many tamazignt they recognise as distinct languages. There is so little data available on Guanche that any classification is necessarily uncertain; however, it is almost universally acknowledged as Afro-Asiatic on the basis of the surviving glosses, and widely suspected to be Berber.
Much the same can be said of the language, sometimes called ” Numidian “, used in the Libyan or Libyco-Berber inscriptions around the turn of the Common Era, whose alphabet is the ancestor of Tifinagh. Tamazighr Kossmann describes Berber as arabd dialect continua. The implied tree is:.
Ethnologuemostly following Aikhenvald and Militarevtreats the eastern varieties arxbe. Blench ms, has the following classification: Their influence is also seen in some languages in West Africa. Migeod pointed to strong resemblances between Berber and Hausa in such words and phrases as these: A number of extinct populations are believed to have spoken Afro-Asiatic languages adabe the Berber branch.