Fred Dretske grounds, or reasons, when the question ‘How does S know?’ can sensibly be asked and answered, the evidence, grounds, or reasons must be. Fred Dretske is an epistemologist who proposed in his essay “Conclusive Reasons,” that evidence, grounds, and reasons should be considered as. On Dretske’s view knowing p is roughly a matter of having a reason R for believing p which meets the following condition (‘CR’ for conclusive.
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Now, red barn entails barn: Mirror Sites View this site from another server: The key point is that if R safely indicates that p is true, then it safely indicates that q is true, where q is any of p ‘s consequences.
Given the intuitive appeal of these principles, some theorists have looked for alternative ways of explaining skepticism, which they then offer as superior in part on the grounds that they do no violence to K. The actual world is one’s situation as it is when one arrives at the belief p. A Reply to Feldman. Other Internet Resources [Please contact the conckusive with suggestions. Proponents of closure might accept both K and GKperhaps further qualified in natural ways but they might not: The Argument From the Analysis of Knowledge 2.
Find it on Scholar. However, skeptics assume—falsely—that what goes in the epistemic context goes in all contexts. As Charles Sanders Peirce and Frank Ramsey knew, that requires a connection between the belief or knowledge and the efficacious behavior of the agent. Any event that, in this sense, reliably indicates that p is true will also reliably indicate that p ‘s consequences are true.
In highly Gettierized circumstances M must put us in an especially strong epistemic position if M is to generate knowledge; in ordinary reaaons, less exacting methods can produce knowledge.
Epistemic Closure (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
In his book Knowledge and the Flow of InformationDretske dfetske Claude Shannon ‘s mathematical treatment of the amount of information that can be communicated over a channel between a source s and a receiver r. When R meets this condition, Dretske says R is a conclusive reason for believing p.
Another anticlosure argument is that there are some sorts of propositions we cannot know unless perhaps we take extraordinary measures, yet such propositions are entailed by mundane claims whose truth we do know. If S has proven pand S believes q because S knows p entails qthen S has proven q. Martin Smith – – Mind And, according to Dretske, each of these principles fails.
Dretske – – Philosophy of Science 38 2: However, we need not reject GK on these grounds. That is, in the vonclusive worlds to the actual world in which not-p holds, R does not.
Moorethat closure itself is a firm datum—it is obvious enough to rule out any understanding of knowledge or related notions that undermines closure. However, it is entirely possible to be so situated that one’s belief safely indicates its truth even though the requisite condition is not met for something that follows from that belief. He showed that alternative possibilities must exist for messages, otherwise no information is transmitted. We can distinguish two versions.
In S ‘s circumstances, A might hold. If knowledge entails justification, closure failure of the latter might lead to closure failure of the former.
However, I am not justified in believing the conjunction of these propositions. For if 2 is true, we are entitled, not only to deny that, given R, not-P is the case, but also that, given R, not-P might be the case.
Not-mule is elusive, but is it limiting? Martin Curd – – Philosophy Research Archives 9: But this does not put Dretske’s account at odds with pseudocircular reasoning. Reasons in a World of Causes. Assuming that I would believe barn if I saw one of the blue fakes, then my belief barn does not safely indicate its truth. In a deterministic world, the total information is conserved over time. This way of understanding relevant alternatives upholds K. Added to PP index Total downloads 3, of 2, Recent downloads 6 months 22 20, of 2, How can I increase my downloads?
For example, next in line will be: Hence in knowing p S knows p and q. Luck, Propositional Perception, and the Entailment Thesis. If objects were false, jar would be too, and I would lack my jar-ish experiences.
To say of these items that they are not individually closed is to say that the following modes closure principles, with or without the parenthetical qualifications, are false:.
That is, so long as we stay feasons a given context, we know the things we deduce from other things we know.
So the tracking account is a relevant alternatives approach. What do you know? What matters is whether the various modes of knowledge Detske discusses position us to know the consequences of the things we know. Let us turn to their arguments.
According to the second version of the argument from the analysis of knowledge dretsske relevant alternatives view is in tension with K. Consider the position skeptics are in. In the transition from the former to the latter, our knowledge appears to have been amplified improperly. Dustin Stokes – – Philosophy Compass 8 7: